Multisig Guide

A Complete Multisignature Guide

keep your bitcoins secure with multisignature

Multisig Guide

In the realm of secure Bitcoin storage, multisignature or multisig holds the top position. It eradicates the risk of a single point of failure by distributing access to the stored bitcoins across multiple signers. This makes a correctly configured multisig system immune to threats such as fire damage, floods, theft and even advanced attacks like forceful confiscation or coercion.

In this comprehensive multisig guide, you’ll not only learn about the core concepts of multisignature but also gain insights on its operation. We’ll delve into an assortment of strategies that you can implement. These strategies will help you to customize the security level and complexity of your multisig setup to your comfort level.

Remember, a well-planned multisig setup doesn’t just add a layer of security, but it essentially makes your Bitcoin virtually untouchable. Thereby optimally securing your digital wealth. Stay tuned as we explain the ins and outs of multisignature in this guide.

What Is Multisignature?

what is multisignature

Multisignature, often abbreviated as multisig, is an innovative feature inherent to Bitcoin that permits the construction of a Bitcoin address (?) necessitating the approval of multiple unique signers. Every signer is linked to an individual Bitcoin address and possesses a unique seed (?), entailing distinct private (?) and public key (?) pairs. The signers can either belong to a single entity or can be distributed among several users who share the same address.

The users have the autonomy to define the quorum (?) during the initial setup, referred to as M-of-N. This includes the total number of signers (N) and the minimum quantity of signers (M) necessary for endorsing a transaction, which establishes the threshold (?). The quorums widely adopted by users are 2-of-3 and 3-of-5, implying that a transaction can be executed if two out of three or three out of five keys respectively authenticate it.

The Advantage Of Multisignature

advantage multisignature

The primary advantage of incorporating multisig is the enhanced protection it offers against potential Bitcoin theft or loss. Even in the event that a key in a 2-of-3 quorum, or two keys in a 3-of-5 quorum are lost or stolen, the access to bitcoins remains safeguarded through the remaining keys. The combination of multisig and cold storage (?) delivers an exceptional degree of security, particularly when the storage locations of the different private keys are geographically diversified. Enhancing the robustness of your Bitcoin safety.

Multisignature is a potent tool in the world of Bitcoin, delivering a secure and efficient method to protect your digital assets. By understanding and properly implementing multisignature, users can significantly minimise the risks associated with Bitcoin holdings.

What Is The Difference Between Singlesig And Multisig?

difference multisig and singlesig

Multisignature technology, a key aspect in bitcoin security, eliminates the vulnerability presented by a single seed, which is a common failure point in singlesig systems. In a singlesig system, the loss or theft of the seed equates to the direct loss of all bitcoins in the wallet. While strong passphrases can help mitigate the risk of theft, issues such as accidental loss or destruction of the key still persist.

In contrast, multisig technology enhances security immensely by distributing the responsibility of signing transactions across multiple signers, each with their unique seed. By storing these seeds in different locations, the likelihood of simultaneous compromise becomes virtually impossible, thus safeguarding your bitcoins. However, this advanced security feature comes with its complexities.

To regain access to your wallet, you need to recreate your multisig address. This requires not just the backup of all your seeds but also your wallet configuration file or the redeem information. This presents a challenge, especially for those less familiar with this technology. If you’re able to produce enough keys for your quorum but don’t have the wallet configuration file, you will still not be able to acces your bitcoins. Hence, it’s important to understand the operations and implications of multisig technology fully before engaging with it.

The Wallet Configuration File

wallet configuration file

For this illustrative example, let’s consider a 2-of-3 quorum in our multisignature (multisig) setup. This configuration requires three separate signers, each possessing a unique seed. The multisig address, created by your multisig wallet or coordinator, is a composite of the three master public keys (Xpubs) (?) derived from these seeds. Each seed must be securely backed up, with each stored in different locations for safety.

The strength of a multisig setup becomes evident when a problem occurs at one of the locations, leading to the loss of a key. Although one key is lost, the two remaining keys are enough to sign to recover the coins in the address. This is the primary advantage of using multisig! However, to sign a transaction to a recovery address, your wallet needs to be re-created. As all three private keys are required to recreate the wallet, a situation with only two keys presents a challenge. This underlines the importance of not only backing up the private keys, but also the wallet configuration file. Think of the wallet configuration file as a treasure map and the private keys as the key to unlock the treasure chest once located. Absent the map, the keys are rendered useless.

How To Backup The Wallet Configuration File?

backup wallet configuration file

It’s crucial to handle your multisig wallet with care, ensuring that the configuration file is stored securely. This file can be retained in several ways: Preserving the entire wallet with all registered signers, retaining the redeem information provided by the wallet or manually saving the Xpub, derivation paths (?) and fingerprints of all registered keys. This multisig guide recommends diversification in your methods and creating multiple digital backups per location to ensure safety.

While the theft of the wallet information can’t lead to bitcoin loss (provided you retain a copy), it can and probably will compromise your privacy. Anyone accessing your wallet file could view your bitcoin balance on the public blockchain. Thus, it’s important to secure your wallet information well, though the level of security needed is less critical than your private keys.

You have the option to store your wallet file separately or along with your seeds. Given that the wallet file theft is less critical, you can store them in less secure places like a password manager or an encrypted map on your computer. If opting for separate storage, make sure to have several copies in case one gets lost. If you decide to store them with the seeds of your signers, ensure to maintain as many copies as your threshold. This way, even if the maximum number of seeds is lost, you’ll still have access to your wallet file and thus your bitcoins.

Different Components Of A Multisignature Setup

components of multisig

To establish a multisignature or multisig setup, planning is paramount. This is primarily because the elements within the multisignature infrastructure are interdependent. Take for instance, if you choose to involve three signatories in your multisig setup, you’ll need to establish three secure storage locations accordingly. Moreover, there’s a necessity for your chosen hardware and software to be compatible. This compatibility check must be conducted beforehand. In this multisig guide, we will navigate through the seven integral components of a multisig setup:

Multisignature Signers

multisignature signer

The concept of multisignature is integral to improving the security of your Bitcoin. This part of the multisig guide aims to provide a simple yet comprehensive explanation of how to choose your signers and set up a multisig quorum. In practice, the quorum is defined as M-of-N, where ‘M’ represents the number of signers required to authorise a transaction, and ‘N’ denotes the total number of signers available.

The beauty of multisig lies in its flexibility. With more available signers than required, losing or misplacing one does not compromise your access to the Bitcoins stored in the multisig address. This flexibility allows you manufacture a healthy balance between protection from theft and loss, with security, complexity and cost considerations. The smaller the ‘M’ in relation to ‘N’, the better the protection against loss. A larger ‘M’ provides better protection against theft but makes loss more likely. Finding a personal balance is the key, but the popular 2 of 3 and 3 of 5 setups are generally good for most people.

Use Preferably Hardware Wallets

use hardware wallets for multisignature

When it comes to choosing multisig signers, hardware wallets are the most secure and user friendly option. Diversifying your signing devices enhances your security measures even further. Though hot wallets may pose a cheaper alternative, their use should ideally be limited to fewer signers than your setup’s threshold. The same rule applies to the use of identical signing devices. For instance, in a 3-of-5 multisig setup, refrain from using the same device more than twice.

Remember, each hardware wallet brings its unique strengths and weaknesses to the table. The key to an optimally secure multisig setup is diversification among these weaknesses, mitigating the risk of a single vulnerability impacting multiple keys simultaneously. Interested in comparing the best multisig signers? Click on the button below!

Multisignature Wallet

multisignature wallet

Next you need a multisig wallet. An invaluable and cost-free tool, designed to seamlessly merge all involved signatories into a multisig address, thereby connecting directly with the Bitcoin blockchain. The process couldn’t be simpler; register the signatories within the wallet during your multisig setup and they’re ready to authorise transactions. Remember, compatibility is key. Your wallet must align with your chosen signing devices and the consensus source you’ve selected. Moreover, it’s crucial to ensure the chosen multisig wallet is compatible with your operating system and offers the additional features you require.

Our comprehensive table showcases a selection of the top free multisig wallets and indicates their compatibility with different signatories. Rest assured, all the wallets featured on our platform are complimentary and open-source. Feel free to explore and download the wallet that best fits your needs. We encourage experimentation with multiple wallets until you find the perfect fit. Begin your journey towards efficient and secure transactions by clicking the button below to choose the ideal multisig wallet for your setup. Remember, our multisig guide is always available for further assistance.

Consensus Source

multisig consensus source

In the world of Bitcoin, your wallet’s vision into the blockchain transactions is granted by a component called the consensus source. This element is essentially responsible for relaying information about your wallet’s balance and overseeing the transactions you commit. Blockchain explorers and full nodes are the key consensus sources available. While running a full node provides absolute monetary sovereignty, it does necessitate a certain level of effort and technical know-how. On the other hand, connecting to a blockchain explorer offers a user-friendly, effortless alternative. Eliminating the need to run any system on your own.

Many multisig wallets allow for both options. Some offer the functionality to run a node within the wallet itself, while others provide the opportunity to link to an external node or a blockchain explorer. As always, the choice depends on your preferences and abilities. Nevertheless, for those capable, running an individual node is highly recommended. It provides unrivalled privacy and the power to validate your own transactions.

Backup Wallet Files And Seeds

backup wallet file and seed

Backing up the seeds from all signers and safeguarding the wallet configuration file is a key step in the multisignature setup process. The seeds, which can be conserved on paper or secured using a robust stainless steel backup. The latter offers an added level of protection against natural disasters and the ravages of time. Digitising the wallet configuration file provides the most convenience and security.

You could keep the wallet file in an encrypted folder on your computer, store it within a password manager or even keep it on a USB stick. In the realm of multisig, having multiple backups of your configuration file is not just beneficial, it’s optimal and basically a must. As a point of reassurance, theft of the wallet file does not pose as much risk as the theft of private keys, but only harms privacy. This means that encrypted digital storage of the wallet file is generally safe.

Backup Locations

secure multisig backup location

Preserving the seeds of your multisignature wallet requires strategic planning and careful consideration. Depending on whether you have a 2-of-3 or a 3-of-5 multisig, you’ll need to secure three or five locations respectively, for safekeeping your seeds.

The definition of ‘safe’ is subjective and can range from an elementary setup, such as storing one key at your residence, another at a trusted friend’s house and a third in a rented locker (in case of a 2-of-3 multisig), to a more elaborate setup. An example of the latter would be a 3-of-5 multisig where keys are stowed away in private, non-banking vaults situated in distinct nations known for their robust property rights.

While strategising your multisig setup, it’s essential to think about the balance between security and accessibility. For instance, a key preserved in an overseas vault adds an extra layer of security, but it compromises on easy access compared to a key tucked away at a friend’s place. By thoroughly assessing the pros and cons associated with each key’s location, you can design a multisig system that suits your needs perfectly.

Remember, your multisig journey is not just about setting up your wallet, it’s also about ensuring its security and accessibility as per your personal preferences. The key to a successful multisig system lies in balancing these factors.


enhance your privacy

Emphasising privacy in the realm of Bitcoin security ensures a robust defense against potential threats. Concealing your Bitcoin ownership is a proactive strategy that can significantly enhance your overall security, especially when you have big amounts of Bitcoin in multisignature cold storage. Utilising comprehensive privacy strategies like operating your own full node, harnessing the anonymity of TOR and employing a wallet with coin control. If feasible setting up your multisig offline can amplify your security and privacy. Embracing these privacy measures not only safeguards your Bitcoin but also contributes to the overall health and resilience of the Bitcoin network. It will help the entire Bitcoin network by preserving fungibility and thwarting network certain attacks.

Multisignature offers a formidable shield against a variety of threats, such as fire, burglary, theft and even extreme scenarios like torture and confiscation. However, it is worth noting that multisig cannot provide protection against blackmail if the perpetrator is aware of your Bitcoin ownership and holdings. Maintaining privacy regarding your Bitcoin assets is the most effective solution for this particular threat. Lack of knowledge about your Bitcoin ownership can deter potential blackmailers. While multisig serves as a potent tool to buy you time during threats, ultimate protection lies in preserving the secrecy of your Bitcoin ownership.

Extra Features

extra multisignature features

When it comes to enhancing the security of your multisignature set-up, a wealth of additional features is at your disposal. These features amplify the security of your multisig, offering greater protection against potential threats. However, it’s important to remember that with the use of extra security features comes increased complexity, which may inadvertently introduce new vulnerabilities. Thus, it falls upon your shoulders to weigh the pros and cons. It is up to you to discern if integrating these advanced features aligns with your requirements. Here are a few advanced features you might want to consider:

  • Passphrases
  • Shamir’s Secret Sharing Scheme
  • Roll ‘n Dice
  • Timelocks

How To Setup Multisignature? – We Will Guide You

how to setup multisig

Unlock the power of multisignature security for your bitcoins with our comprehensive multisig guide. Setting up a multisig wallet can seem daunting, but don’t worry: Our step-by-step guide will walk you through the process, ensuring you have all the necessary tools and information at your fingertips. Before diving in, it’s crucial to understand the concept of multisignature. As described earlier in this guide, it’s a digital signature scheme requiring multiple keys to authorise a transaction. Enhancing the security of your digital assets.

Another key step often overlooked is the importance of backing up the wallet configuration file alongside the private keys. So, before you embark on the multisig setup journey, ensure you know how to perform these backups. Getting started with multisignature doesn’t have to be complicated. Follow our detailed guide to smoothly navigate the process. Bolster your crypto security and gain peace of mind. Remember, with multisig it’s all about combining simplicity with security.

Step 1 – Plan Your Multisignature Setup

make a multisignature plan

Optimal planning is the foundation of a successful multisignature setup, acting as a guide through the intricate decision-making process. Balancing various factors, such as cost, security and accessibility, is at the heart of this process. Limitations may arise from diverse areas such as the availability of secure storage locations, the affordability of signers or the feasibility of running an independent full node.

An example of a decision-making trade-off in the multisig setup includes picking between ultra-secure storage in a distant location and easily accessible storage nearby. Similarly, the choice can be between the superior security of large quorum setups and the convenience of smaller ones or between cost-effective first-generation signers and high-end air-gapped signers. Your decision will probably somewhere in the middle on all of these points.

Indeed, these decisions can seem overwhelming, but it’s crucial to remember that even a multisig setup with trade-offs significantly enhances your security over not having a multisig setup at all. Thus, implementing multisignature should be prioritised for everyone wishing to safeguard their digital assets effectively, even if you don’t have much to spend or other limitations. By being well-informed and strategically planning your multisig setup, you can navigate these trade-offs and achieve a balance that suits your individual needs and circumstances.

How To Plan

how to plan multisig

The emphasis of your plan should be on meticulous selection of the appropriate tools, ensuring the secure storage of private keys and defining an adequate quorum. Consideration needs to be given to the backup strategies for your wallet configuration file. Ensuring data retrieval in case of unforeseen circumstances.

Choosing the right type of multisig wallet, signing devices and consensus source are pivotal, keeping compatibility among them in mind. Additionally, think about the extra features you might want to incorporate; these can enhance the functionality and user experience of your wallet. Privacy optimization is another critical aspect that shouldn’t be overlooked when planning your multisig wallet.

In this process, remember that every tool might not suit your specific need. Hence, conduct a thorough assessment of each one’s capabilities and drawbacks. This way, you can ensure you’re making the most informed decisions for your multisignature wallet setup.

Step 2 – Get All The Multisignature Tools

multisignature tools

Getting started involves setting up the necessary software and hardware in place. We advise beginning with the free software, as this allows you to familiarise yourself with the system and confirm compatibility.

The first step is to select and download a reliable multisig wallet. Next, establish your own node or connect the wallet to a trusted block explorer. At this point, feel free to explore the functionalities of your wallet by creating multiple software seeds (?) and generating a multisig address. After this, test the robustness of your setup by attempting to recover this address using your seeds and the wallet file.

Once you’ve mastered the software portion, it’s time to buy the signing devices. We recommend purchasing these directly from the manufacturer to minimize the risk of supply chain attacks. Rest assured, each device referenced on our site comes straight from the manufacturer, providing you with an extra layer of security!

In the multisignature setup, your safety is paramount. By following these steps, you’re not only fortifying your digital assets but also gaining valuable insights into the dynamic realm of multisig technology.

Step 3 – Setup The signers And Make Backups

setup signers

It’s essential to ensure your hardware signers are all set and ready to go. This process involves setting up the hardware wallets, empowering them to sign into the multisig framework. For optimal privacy, aim to use the application instead of the web wallet. As this practice prevents your Xpub (?) from being exposed to servers.

Once your hardware wallets are primed for use, diligently follow the manufacturer’s setup guidelines. During the setup, you will need to keep a secure backup of the seeds. Whether you’re using paper or a metal backup for seed storage, be sure to place them in tamper-proof envelopes for added safety. Moreover, clearly marking each backup will help you quickly identify which one corresponds to which signer. Avoiding confusion and saving valuable time.

Remember, the effective use of multisignature technology requires meticulous setup and maintenance. When done correctly, it provides an added layer of security, controlling access and ensuring a more secure digital asset environment.

Step 4 – Register The Signers In The Wallet And Connect The Consensus Source

register signers

Once the signers are set up, it is time to connect your multisig wallet to a block explorer or node, followed by defining your preferred quorum. Various wallet options may allow customisation of additional parameters, such as the address format, facilitating user comfort and understanding. The crux of the setup lies in the registration of the signers.

This is straightforward if the devices are compatible with the multisig wallet; simply follow the wallet instructions to guide you through the process. For those desiring an additional layer of security, incorporating passphrases into your setup is feasible during this stage. With all signers efficiently registered, your multisig wallet is primed and ready, offering you a secure and technologically advanced way to secure your bitcoins.

Step 5 – Backup The Wallet Configuration File

backup wallet configuration file

Ensuring the safety of your multisig wallet is a crucial step which you’ve successfully completed. Now we’re moving onto an equally important step: Backing up your wallet configuration file. This process might be brief, but it carries significant importance! Duplicate your wallet configuration file preferable multiple times for safekeeping and store these copies in diverse locations, adding an extra layer of security.

Step 6 – Test The Multisignature Backup Files

test the multisignature backup files

Optimizing your financial security with a multisignature setup should always start with a test run. By transferring a minimal amount of Bitcoin (BTC) to your newly established multisig address and sending it back, you can ensure that your system works flawlessly. Remember, the devil is in the details. Be mindful of the information needed for recovery and ensure everything is properly documented and backed up. Once you’ve proven that your multisignature system operates as expected, you can confidently distribute the keys.

Step 7 – Distribute The Private Keys

distribute private keys multisig setup

In order to truly enhance the security of your multisig setup, it’s important to distribute all private keys across varied locations. These locations could be both domestic and international – from your personal residence to the homes of trusted friends or relatives, or secure places like a local bank locker or an overseas vault. Private keys can be safely stored as a seed, a fully set up hardware device or ideally, both. While we generally advise against storing just the hardware device, certain industry players like Casa suggest a “seedless backup” approach. However, if you do decide to adhere to their advice, it’s crucial to also follow their additional guidelines, such as regular device testing and storage in Faraday bags. On a broader note, we generally recommend storing both the seed and the device for optimal multisig security. They can even be stored in different locations.

It’s worth noting that the concept of multisignature is all about enhancing the security of your Bitcoin. The distribution of private keys in various locations forms a safety net that makes it nearly impossible for unauthorised individuals to gain access to your assets. In essence, multisig with properly distributed keys serves as an added layer of protection. Offering peace of mind in the often unpredictable world of digital assets.

Step 8 – Send Bitcoin To The Multisignature Address

send bitcoin to your multisig address

To ensure optimal security when it comes to your Bitcoin, you have the option to distribute the keys either before or after our guide’s final step. Your decision would largely depend on your assessment of theft or confiscation risk while in transit with the keys. Our guide proposes keeping this as your last step. Doing so eliminates any risk to your Bitcoin should you need to cross borders with your keys. Plus, this allows safe travel with multiple keys, potentially reducing travel time and costs.

When you send Bitcoin to your multisig address, always verify the address before making any transaction. Malware that alters the copied and pasted public key does exist, leading to the risk of sending your Bitcoin to an incorrect address. Carefully examine every character of the public address to which you’re sending your bitcoins. For an additional layer of security, consider first making a small test transaction. For privacy reasons and to avoid the stress of sending big amounts of Bitcoin in one time. We advice to use a multisig wallet like Sparrow where you can separate UTXO’s. Now you can load your multisig address with multiple smaller transactions, which you later can spend separately.

Test And Upgrade Your Multisig Setup And Diversify

test and upgrade multisig setup

Once you have your multisig setup, it is good practice to regularly test and / or upgrade it. Both hardware and software will evolve or can degrade over time which can break compatibility or lead to loss of critical information. Some hardware or software will even disappear over a longer time frame, and should be rotated out of the setup. Additionally, your memory can fail you, it is really possible to forget parts of your setup that you never expected to forget. Lastly, the value of your Bitcoin will probably grow, which might require a more advanced and secure setup.

Test Your Multisig Setup

Testing your setup brings in some minor privacy risk, which means that you have to decide for yourself how often you want to test. A sweet spot might be about once a year, where you don’t expose your setup including Xpubs and UTXO’s online very often, while you will probably be in time to catch problems before they become critical. To test your setup you undertake the following actions:

  • Upgrade all the hardware and software
  • Recreate your multisig wallet with your wallet configuration file or other backup information
  • Do a key check for the keys you can access

Upgrade Your Multisig Setup

Our advice is to diversify between different setups to secure your Bitcoin so that one setup won’t be a single point of failure. You can have a part of your digital wealth in singlesig + passphrase, another part in collaborative custody, another part in an easy to access 2-of-3 multisig and another part in an ultra secure globally distributed 3-of-5 multisignature. Of course using all these setups is only suited for the Bitcoin rich, for most people it will be massive overkill. However, while your Bitcoin wealth grows you can build out more setups getting more advanced over time and slowly spread your money over them.

You will probably not feel super comfortable with a brand new setup: So we recommend to fund a new setup with just a little bit and increase it while you start to feel more comfortable as time passes. This way your coins will naturally flow to the most secure setups where you feel most comfortable with, while your older and less secure wallets slowly become empty. If you want to safe some money you can plan your upgrades around Black Friday, then you can get double digit discounts on almost all the hardware wallets and especially with bigger quorums this will safe you a lot of money!

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